Common Primary Terpenes

  • Caryophyllene: This spicy, woody terpene is found in black pepper and cloves. Caryophyllene is said to be anti-fungal and may also be anti-inflammatory.
  • Humulene: Humulene is no stranger to modern biomedical research, including studies on black pepper, hops, and ginseng, and research has proven it to be an effective anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and appetite suppressant.
  • Limonene: Limonene is citrusy and found in fruits and rinds. It is often used in supplements as it promotes mental clarity, energy, and focus. This terpene is also said to be an anti-bacterial compound.
  • Linalool: Linalool has a lovely floral scent and is one of the main ingredients in essential oils such as lavender. It is being studied for use as an anti-depressant, pain killer, and as a possible Alzheimer’s treatment. It possesses antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, and may improve sleep, and reduce anxiety and stress.
  • Myrcene: Myrcene is known for producing a hoppy smell and is found in hops, thyme, and lemongrass. Myrcene is said to be a sedative and an analgesic.
  • Nerolidol: This terpene smells earthy and woody with fruity, floral notes of rose, apples and citrus.  It’s found in jasmine, ginger, and tea tree among other plants. Studies have shown Nerolidol has anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-oxidant properties.
  • Pinene (Alpha & Beta): Found in pine needles, as well as eucalyptus oil, rosemary, basil, and dill, Pinene is said to have anti-septic and anti-inflammatory properties and may be a bronchodilator and potentially useful for conditions such as asthma.
  • Terpinoline: A fresh tasting terpene, Terpinoline is found in nutmeg, cumin, apples, lilacs, and tea tree.  It’s herbaceous and floral and can have a sedative effect.  It can be helpful for anxiety and insomnia. 

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